1. Education

Civil Rights Movement

Read about the struggles of African Americans to obtain and maintain civil rights from the late 19th century through the present.

The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom is credited with pushing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 into law.

Profile: Ella Baker
Ella Baker was a strategic organizer and mentor to several Civil Rights Movement organizations.

Septima Poinsette Clark
Septima Poinsette Clark was an educator and civil rights activist. As director of citizenship schools help spur the Montgomery Bus Boycott and voter registration drive.

Rosa Parks: Mother of the Civil Rights Movement
With one single refusal, Rosa Parks became the mother of Civil Rights Movement.

The Civil Rights Movement

Get started learning about the Civil Rights Movement with this handy guide.

Executive Order 9981
President Harry Truman signed Executive Order 9981 on July 26, 1948, ending segregation in the military. Read about its origins.

Major Civil Rights Speeches and Writings

A list and description of the major speeches and writings of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s.

Civil Rights Songs
A list and description of songs that inspired and galvanized Civil Rights activists, from About.com guide Kim Ruehl.

Medgar Evers
Medgar Evers work as a civil rights activist in Mississippi helped end segregation at the University of Mississippi.

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
CORE played an important role in galvanizing young adults to help African-Americans in the South fight against racial discrimination.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
A concise explanation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, from About.com guide Dawn Rosenberg McKay.

Civil Rights Act of 1964
A description of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Biography: James Baldwin
James Baldwin's work as an essayist, novelist and playwright explored issues such as personal identity, racism, and sexuality.

Malcolm X
Once a convicted criminal, Malcolm X rose to prominence as a religious/political leader of the Nation of Islam. By his death in 1965, X had broken away from the NOI and formed the Muslim Mosque Inc.

Fannie Lou Hamer
Fannie Lou Hamer was a grassroots worker in Mississippi whose fight to register local voters led to national publicity.

A Recollection of Freedom Summer
Terri Shaw, a volunteer during Freedom Summer (the drive to register Mississippi African Americans to vote), describes her experiences.

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
SNCC was established in 1960 on the campus of Shaw University as a civil rights organization.

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