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Malcolm X


Malcolm X In Oxford Black Nationalist leader
Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Malcolm X was a Pan-Africanist and devout Muslim who believed in the upliftment of African-Americans. Throughout his life, he evolved from being a convicted criminal to a learned man who was always trying to change the social standing of African-Americans. His most famous words, "By any means necessary," encapsulate his ideology.

Key Details

Birth name: Malcolm Little. Later changed to Malcolm X and El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz

Date of Birth: May 19, 1925; Omaha, Neb.

Death: February 21, 1965; Audubon Ballroom, New York


Parents:Earl and Louise Little

Spouse:Betty X; Betty Shabazz (nee Sanders)

Children: Atallah, Quibilah, Ilyasah, Gamilah, Malaak and Malikah

Key Achievements
  • Within a year and a half of being paroled from prison, X is appointed minister of the Nation of Islam's Boston mosque, Temple No. 11, in December of 1953.
  • The following year, he becomes minister of Temple No. 12 in Philadelphia and Temple No. 7 in New York.
  • In 1957, X established Muhammad Speaks, the official newspaper of the Nation of Islam.
  • By the early 1960s, X is included in nationally broadcasted radio stations.
  • The New York Times reports that X is one of the most sought after speakers in the United States.
  • In June of 1963, X organizes and leads one of the United States' largest civil rights events, the Unity Rally.
  • In March of 1964, X establishes Muslim Mosque, Inc and the Organizations of Afro-American Unity (OAAU).
  • The Autobiography of Malcolm X is published in November 1965.

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