1. Education

Segregation and the Jim Crow Era

The late 19th and early 20th centuries witnessed the rise of Jim Crow laws in the South and de facto segregation in the North. Explore the major themes and events of this period in African-American history.

Definition of Jim Crow
What is a Jim Crow law? Find out in this essay, from About.com guide Nadra Kareem.

History of the Jim Crow Era
Photographs punctuate this history of the Jim Crow period, from About.com guide Tom Head.

Jim Crow Laws and Etiquette
An explanation of the Jim Crow laws and informal rules that dictated the lives of African Americans during the late 1800s and early 1900s, from the Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia at Ferris State University.

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
An essay on the significance of Plessy v. Ferguson, which permitted legalized segregation, from PBS.

Stories of Jim Crow
Listen to the remembrances of African Americans who lived under segregation, from PBS.org.

Anti-Lynching Movement
The Anti Lynching movement was a movement aimed at abolishing the practice of lynching.

The Niagara Movement: Organizing for Social Change
The Niagara Movement was an instrumental organization that was established in 1905 by journalist William Monroe Trotter and W.E.B. Du Bois in opposition to Booker T. Washington's philosophy as an accommodation.

The Red Summer of 1919
The Red Summer of 1919 began in May and lasted until the end of October. During this time, race riots erupted in many northern cities.

Lugenia Burns Hope
Lugenia Burns Hope worked tirelessly to improve the lives of African-Americans in Georgia through various initiatives.

The National Association of Colored Women
The National Association of Colored Women was established to grant African-American women a voice in society. For the past 110 years, the NACW has worked to provide social services and end racism in the United States.

James Weldon Johnson: Renaissance Man
This page offers biographical information on the African-American writer, James Weldon Johnson. The profile features a biography, family information and various texts published by the author.

The Power of the Press: African-American News Publications in the Jim Crow Era
The African-American press was instrumental in campaigning against Jim Crow in the South and de facto segregation in the North.

Claude McKay: Proletariat Poet
Claude McKay was one of the most prolific poets of the Harlem Renaissance--writing sonnets that exposed the harsh realities of African-American life in the United States.

William Monroe Trotter: An Uncompromising Agitator
William Monroe Trotter opposed everyone--from government officials to Booker T.Washington--for not believing that African-Americans deserved immediate equality in American society.

African-Americans in the Progressive Era
For African-American reformers

Causes of the Great Migration: Searching for the Promised Land
The Great Migration was movement from rural southern areas to northern, Midwestern and western cities.

W.E.B. Du Bois: Innovative Activist
Historian, sociologist, writer, educator and sociopolitical activist, W.E.B. Du Bois fought throughout his career to uplift African-Americans through a variety of methods.

American Negro Academy: Promoting the Talented Tenth
The American Negro Academy promoted the work of African-American scholars in the late 19th, early 20th century.

Paul Laurence Dunbar: Poet Laureate of the Negro Race
Paul Laurence Dunbar was the most prominent African-American literary figure prior to the Harlem Renaissance.

Booker T. Washington: Biography
Booker T. Washington was the most influential African-American leader from 1895 until his death in 1915.

Jessie Redmon Fauset: Harlem Renaissance Editor and Writer
Jessie Redmon Fauset was one of the key players of the Harlem Renaissance. As literary editor of The Crisis, Fauset promoted the work of African-American writers.

Four Publications of the Harlem Renaissance
Daily and monthly publications were important to promoting the work of Harlem Renaissance artists.

Richard Wright
Following the success of "Native Son," Richard Wright became the first African-American bestselling author.

What is Jim Crow?

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