Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, abolitionism developed as the campaign to end slavery. While some abolitionists favored gradual legal emancipation, others advocated for immediate freedom for slaves. However, all abolitionists worked with one goal in mind: freedom for African-Americans.
Black and white abolitionists worked tirelessly to create changes in the United States’ society. They hid runaway slaves in their homes and businesses, held meetings in various spaces, and published newspapers in northern cities such as Boston, New York, Rochester, and Philadelphia. As the United States expanded, abolitionism spread to smaller towns, such as Cleveland, Ohio. Today, many of these meeting places are still standing, while others are marked for their importance by local historical societies.
The North Slope of Beacon Hill is home to some of Boston’s wealthiest residents. However, during the 19th century, it was home to a large population of African-American Bostonians who were actively involved in abolitionism. With more than 20 sites in Beacon Hill, Boston's Black Heritage Trail makes up the largest area of pre-Civil War black-owned structures in the United States. The African Meeting House, the oldest African-American church in the United States, is located in Beacon Hill.
Like Boston, Philadelphia was a hotbed for abolitionism. Free African-Americans in Philadelphia such as Abalsom Jones, Benjamin Banneker and Prince Hall established the Free African Society of Philadelphia.
Religious centers also played a role in the abolitionist movement. Mother Bethel AME Church, another noteworthy place, is the oldest piece of property owned by African-Americans in the United States. Founded by Richard Allen in 1787, the church is still in operation, where visitors can view artifacts from the Underground Railroad, as well as Allen’s tomb in the church’s basement.
At the Johnson House Historic Site, located in the northwest sector of the city (some directional description or added information), visitors can learn more about abolitionism and the Underground Railroad by participating in group tours of the home.
Traveling 90 miles north from Philadelphia on the abolitionist trail, we arrive in New York City. 19th century New York City was not the sprawling metropolis it is today. Instead, lower Manhattan was the center of commerce, trade and abolitionism. Neighboring Brooklyn was mostly farmland and home to several African-American communities who were involved in the Underground Railroad. In lower Manhattan, many of the meeting places have been replaced with large office buildings, but are marked by the New York Historical Society for their significance. However, in Brooklyn, many sites remain; places to visit include the Hendrick I. Lott House and the Bridge Street Church.
Rochester, in northwest New York state, was a popular stop along the route that many runaway slaves used to escape to Canada. Many residents in surrounding towns were part of the Underground Railroad. Leading abolitionists such as Frederick Douglass and Susan B. Anthony called Rochester home. Today, the Susan B. Anthony House, as well as the Rochester Museum & Science Center, highlights the work of Anthony and Douglass through their respective tours.
Noteworthy sites and cities of the abolitionist movement were not limited to the East Coast. Cleveland was also a major station on the Underground Railroad. Known by its code name of “Hope,” runaway slaves knew that once they had crossed the Ohio River, traveled through Ripley and reached Cleveland, they were steps closer to freedom. The Cozad-Bates House was owned by a wealthy abolitionist family who stowed runaways. St. John’s Episcopal Church was the last stop on the Underground Railroad before runaway slaves took a boat across Lake Erie into Canada.